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Title of the research paper
(14-point type size, Sentence case, centered)
Name of Author(s)
(10-point type size, upper and lower case, centered under the title)
Abstract (Sentence case and font size- 10, centred)
The Abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, the research approach followed, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. It should be understandable by the general reader and it should contain minimum of acronyms and jargons. The abstract should be 200 to 300 words in length. (font size :10 in Italics)
Key Words: maximum of five key words should clearly describe the subject matter of the paper.
The papers will be accepted for publication on the understanding that they have not been published, and have not been submitted simultaneously for publication elsewhere. By submitting a research paper, it is deemed that the copyright of the paper is transferred to the Editorial Board by the author(s). After publication, the paper or any part of it may not be reproduced in any form or in any language without the prior approval of the editorial board of IJABF.
2. Strictly adhere to the following formatting style
Paper Title, Author Names/Affiliations, Abstract and Keywords should be in single column format.
Abstract: Your chapter should begin with a brief Abstract and keywords.
The rest of the paper
Author(s) should type rest of their paper in double Colum format.
Paper size: A4; Page Numbering – Center, Consecutively numbered;
Margins: Left: 1.5 inches and all others 01 inch;
Line spacing: 1.5;
Letter style: Times New Roman, Font: 10;
No of pages: 10 to 15 (Including references and appendices);
Column: Two columns.
Paragraph: The second paragraph and the subsequent paragraphs under each new heading should start with the indentation.
First level title should be 10 point Times Roman and bold (Sentence case format- i.e., with upper case initial letters).
Second level title should be 10 point Times Roman italic and bold (Sentence case)
Examples of Subhead Style:
1. First level head (10 point bold, first letter capital case, numbered; use first level subhead for section headings.)
1.1. Second level subhead (10 point bold, first letter capital case, numbered)
3. Table and figure
The table caption should be typed to the width of the table itself and typed above the table. Text type of table caption should be 10 point Times Roman (e.g., Table 1.Caption). Number the titles of the tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text. Be sure that each table caption is headed as “Table 1”, “Table 2”, etc.
Only use lines for top and bottom lines of the table and bottom line for the row with headings and do not have internal vertical or horizontal lines (See example below and tables in the previous issue). Try to keep the width of all tables equal to the width of paragraphs. Please see Table 1 for example.
Figures with the full papers should be formatted with same guidelines given for the table. The only difference is the position of the title which should be available at the bottom of the Figure. Do not use words “chart”, Graphs etc to highlight the figures. Please see figure 1 for example.
4. Citation and references
Proper citation should be given within the text of the paper and in the list of references. It is recommend following “American Psychological Association (APA)” for citation.
APA (American Psychological Association) style of referencing
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
In-Text Citation according to APA style
Using the Author/Date System
Author's name part of narrative: e.g. Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with this topic.
Author's name in parentheses: e.g. One study found that the mostimportant element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Multiple works (separate each work with semi-colons): e.g. Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote, author's name part of narrative: e.g. Gass and Varonis (1984) found that "the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message" (p.85).
Direct quote, author's name in parentheses: One study found that "the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message" (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p.85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, date, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote.
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although
it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed
have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such
as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension.
(Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)
Works by multiple authors
APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors.
Example paragraph with in-text citation
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Krech Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.
In-Text Citations in detail
APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.
Citing an Author or Authors
A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Kernis et al., 1993)
Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
Harris et al. (2001) argued...
(Harris et al., 2001)
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).
Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)
Second citation: (MADD, 2000)
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.
(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.
Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...
Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterwords in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.
(Funk & Kolln, 1992)
Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Citing Indirect Sources
If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.
Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.
If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.
Kenneth (2000) explained...
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").
Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).
Sources Without Page Numbers
When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.
According to Smith (1997), ...(Mind over Matter section, para. 6).
Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.
Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
For more information on how to cite in APA, check out Purdue OWL and Cornell.
End List of references
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Research papers- Example
Balachandran, B., Faff, R., & Theobald, M. (2008). Rights offerings, takeup, renounceability, and underwriting status. Journal of Financial Economics, 89(2), 328-346.
Dixon, R., Guariglia, A., & Vijayakumaran, R. (2015). Managerial ownership, corporate governance and firms' exporting decisions: Evidence from Chinese listed companies. The European Journal of Finance, (ahead-of-print), 1-39.
Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter- Example
Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough and G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.
Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned- Example
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned- Example
Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html
Dissertation, Unpublished- Example
Vijayakumaran, R. (2014). Corporate governance and corporate finance: evidence from Chinese listed companies (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Durham University, Durham.
5 . Proofs
Authors are expected to correct proofs expeditiously and make minimum alterations. It is to be noted that the responsibility for correcting proofs lies with the author and any delay in returning corrected proofs will result in the delay of the publication or its withdrawal from the publication.
6. Links and bookmarks
All hypertext links and section bookmarks will be removed from papers. If you need to refer to an Internet email address or URL in your paper, you must type out the address or URL fully in Regular font.
The heading of the Acknowledgment section and the References section must not be numbered.
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
The copyright is transferred via the ‘Journal Publishing agreements” to International Journal of Accounting and Business Finance, if and when the article is accepted for publication.